There are two reasons why it is impossible to give all-inclusive vaccine recommendations. The first is that the risk of infection and indeed the infectivity of strains of virus differ from one locale to another. The other is that not all vaccines are similar. Some offer longer term protection than others. In London for example, distemper and hepatitis are both rare. Parvovirus remains relatively common. Leptospirosis is also more common than some realise. Rabies does not occur in the UK but dogs and cats that travel abroad and return must be vaccinated. For more information on our vaccination policies please click here for dogs or here or cats.